The EDL founder – whose real name Stephen Christopher Yaxley-Lennon was listed on court documents – was sentenced to 10 months for contempt of court.
He was given a further three months for breaching the terms of a previous suspended sentence.
Robinson was arrested on Friday outside Leeds Crown Court after using social media to broadcast details of a current trial which is subject to blanket reporting restrictions.
Reporting restrictions were also placed on details of Robinson’s sentence but were lifted after a legal challenge on Tuesday.
The judge told him his actions could cause the ongoing trial to be re-run, costing “hundreds and hundreds of thousands of pounds”.
In footage that was played in the court on Friday, the right-wing activist, 35, of Wilstead, Bedfordshire, was seen filming himself and people involved in the trial.
The hour-long footage had been watched 250,000 times within hours of being posted on Facebook, the court heard.
He was previously told he was on a “knife edge” when he was sentenced in May 2017 for trying to film four men standing trial at Canterbury Crown Court on 8 May that year accused of gang-raping a teenage girl.
After sentencing him to three months jail, suspended for 18 months, Judge Norton last year said: “There are notices all over the court building making it clear that filming or taking photographs is an offence and may be a contempt of court.”
At Friday’s hearing Matthew Harding, defending, claimed Robinson had “deep regret” for what he had done.
Mr Harding told the court: “He was mindful, having spoken to others and taken advice, not to say things that he thought would actually prejudice these proceedings.
“He did not try to cause difficulties for the court process.”
Judge Geoffrey Marson QC said: “Not only was it a very long video, but I regard it as a serious aggravating feature that he was encouraging others to share it and it had been shared widely.
“That is the nature of the contempt.
“He referred to the charges that the defendants faced and some charges which are not proceeded against in relation to some defendants.”
The judge also claimed that “nothing may occur” to prejudice the trial, adding: “He (Robinson) was expressing his views.
“Everyone understands the right to freedom of speech but there are responsibilities and obligations.”
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Addressing Robinson, Judge Marson said: “I am not sure you appreciate the potential consequence of what you have done.
“People have to understand that if they breach court orders there will be very real consequences.”