Other statements made by Mr. Durrani include Pakistan’s role in fomenting popular unrest in Kashmir, the disputed Himalayan region that is claimed in its entirety by both India and Pakistan. Officially, Pakistan has always maintained that it supports the population in Kashmir morally and diplomatically and denies any role in the armed, anti-India insurgency in the disputed region.
India, however, has directly accused Pakistani military intelligence of long supporting militancy in Kashmir and the attack by Lashkar-e-Taiba militants that killed more than 200 people in Mumbai in 2008.
While Mr. Durrani has received sympathy in India for the scrutiny he now faces, in Pakistan, he has been criticized.
Several Pakistani civilian leaders have questioned Mr. Durrani’s actions and statements attributed in the book. Raza Rabbani, an influential opposition senator, said during a Senate session last week that any civilian teaming up with an Indian would have been quickly branded as a traitor.
“It is shocking that on one hand Pakistan and India relations are at an all-time low and on the other hand, former spy chiefs of both the countries are teaming up to write a book,” Mr. Rabbani said.
Adeeb Z. Safvi, a retired Pakistani Navy captain and defense analyst, said Mr. Durrani had shunned protocol by publishing the book without getting it reviewed by security services first, as is the custom with many countries, including the United States.
It is rare for former powerful generals to be held accountable or questioned for their actions. Mr. Durrani also served as the director general of military intelligence and retired in 1993, but he has remained active in public life, having later served as Pakistan’s ambassador to Germany and to Saudi Arabia as well.