One in four arriving in Colombia and Peru has a university or postgraduate degree
MADRID, 30 Sep. –
The lack of food and medicine is the main reason given by Venezuelans who leave their country, with four out of five who argue that this is what has pushed them out of Venezuela, while only 1 percent allege repression policy by the Government of Nicolás Maduro against the opposition.
This follows from a study conducted by GBAO for the Tent association, which seeks to mobilize the business sector to support refugees more, according to which 77 percent of the 600 Venezuelans consulted in Colombia and Peru – the two main countries of reception in the region – they left Venezuela because of the “shortage or cost of food and medicine”.
The second cause is the lack of employment (10 percent), followed by failures in services such as water and electricity (7 percent) and crime and violence (3 percent), according to the report 'The experience of Venezuelan refugees in Colombia and Peru '.
On the other hand, the study shows that a considerable number of those who are leaving Venezuela are people with studies and qualified, although the number among those arriving in Colombia is decreasing.
In any case, 24 percent of those interviewed in this country have a university or postgraduate degree and 25 percent have some university or technical training. In the case of Venezuelans in Peru, the figures are respectively 24 and 23 percent.
Four out of every five Venezuelans consulted in Colombia have found employment, although in difficult and precarious conditions, and in most cases they have done so through their support networks, mainly friends. In general, four out of five work more than 40 hours a week, almost half work more than 60 and 21 percent do more than 70.
Regarding the type of work to be done, the study identifies differences between the two countries. Thus, in Colombia, the majority work on their own and many do so for unregistered companies, especially in the city of Barranquilla. In the case of Peru, the majority work for a company and a much lower number do it for companies within the informal economy.
As a result, according to the study, Venezuelans who are in Peru mostly have a regular salary, while in the case of Colombia they are paid directly with goods or services.
On the other hand, GBAO and Tent call attention to the fact that only one in six Venezuelans work in the same professional field as they did before leaving their country. Thus, for example, while only 5 percent did unskilled jobs in Venezuela, now 14 percent do.
Given the difficulty of finding good and well-paid jobs, many Venezuelans are looking for new jobs and are willing to move to another area of the country to find a better position – 9 out of 10 among those in Colombia and two-thirds of those They are in Peru. They are also willing to move to another country, with Chile as a favorite destination.
According to the authors of the report, “companies in various industries would find an active and capable workforce among these refugees.” In the case of women, they explain, they opt mainly for administrative, hospitality, education and medicine jobs, while men are inclined towards manufacturing and construction and technology jobs.
Finally, 95 percent of Venezuelans surveyed have expressed their desire to return to their country one day, but say they will not do so without the departure of Maduro and the ruling party and without the economic recovery of the country. The figure is reduced in the event that the president leaves power and is relieved by Juan Guaidó, self-proclaimed president in charge, or another opponent but there is no economic recovery.