After Ethereum’s co-founder, Gavin Wood, left the Ethereum Foundation in 2016, he wrote a white paper for a new type of blockchain that used an innovative form of cross-chain and sharding communication to determine the type of scalability and interoperability to reach. that Ethereum 1.0 could never create. Wood’s new blockchain, called polkadot, threw his first iteration in May and recently moved the second stage of the main network.
The moment that Wood developed Polkadot The core development team at Ethereum worked on it The biggest update to the Ethereum infrastructure since its release in 2015. Ethereum 2.0, also called Serenity, will start yours first iteration this year, with a gradual start in the next two years. Ethereum 2.0 will also use a variant of fragmentation as a means of completion cWith the scalability problems that have plagued the coin market since the first boom in 2017.
Given the intertwined history of these two platforms Are the two comparable? And if so, how?
Scalability with fragments
Both Ethereum 2.0 and Polkadot use sharding to achieve scalability. Sharding partitions the blockchain network or its data to enable parallel processing and thus increase performance. However, sharding is a broad term, and these two projects use different methods.
Indeed, Ethereum 1.0 works in a unique chain structure in which every node has to validate every transaction. Vice versa, Ethereum 2.0 has a main chain called the Beacon Chain, which facilitates communication between the shards connected to the Beacon Chain. Shards can be processed in parallel, This enables higher performance than the single chain structure.
Ethereum 2.0 imposes a specific condition on the shards connected to the beacon chain, since each shard must have a uniform method of changing the status when each block is added to the blockchain. Essentially, a beacon chain consists of a series of connections or plugs, such as a USB connection, to which only shards with the correct shape of the USB plug can be connected.
Polkadot uses a different variant of splintering. The network also has a main chain called Relay Chain. Shards in Polkadot are called “parachutes” and can also execute transactions in parallel. However, Polkadot uses a much more flexible meta protocol so that parachutes can connect to the main chain. This means that each parachute can set its own rules for changing the status. The only requirement is that the relay chain validators can execute them using the meta protocol used Standard WebAssembly. Back to the analogy of the USB connection: The relay chain serves as a kind of universal plug. Now anyone with any type of connector can connect to Polkadot.
The flexibility described above means that Polkadot offers a high level of interoperability that is not possible with Ethereum 2.0. since only Ethereum-specific shards can be part of the Ethereum ecosystem. Polkadot uses bridge parachutes that can be connected to external block chains. Bidirectional compatibility.
Effectively, Ethereum could connect to the Polkadot ecosystem via a bridge parachute, allowing DApp developers to interact with any other Polkadot parachute. However, the opposite is not possible: Polkadot could not become a fragment of the Ethereum Beacon Chain. Moonbeam is an example of a bridge parachute that provides developers with a smart contract platform that supports this Ethereum based on Polkadot.
So far, interoperability has not played a major role in the development of the blockchain. But maybe because Since so many blockchains have developed into “walled gardens”, interoperability will play a greater role from 2020. By doing Block stack summit from last year in San Francisco, the blockchain entrepreneur, Andreas Antonopoulos, presented a convincing argument for interoperability and explained that every chain that attracts enough development eventually eats itself lor that requires an infrastructure upgrade.
If Antonopoulos is right, much of today’s infrastructure such as blockchain bridges or interoperable platforms like Polkadot could decisively facilitate the future development of Ethereum.
It is also worth noting that Wood recognizes the symbiosis inherent in this relationship between the two platforms. after this explained in a blog post that since the publication of the Polkadot White Paper: “We knew that unifying with the Ethereum ecosystem to expand capabilities would be one of the key points of the network everywhere.”
Polkadot was launched on the Mainnet in May. with the project roadmap that includes incremental updates from a completely decentralized infrastructure with all planned governance functions. The first phase is the authorization test, in which validators are put together for the network. The project has recently started its second phaseknown as nominated proof of participation. This refers to the first start of the network consensus model. Assuming everything is going well, the next step is to implement the network governance model.
Ethereum 2.0 takes a slightly different approach to phased deployment, so the full version follows phased updates. The beacon chain is expected to be launched this summer along with participation with new evidence of participation consensus. The change too Complete sharding is planned for the next phases.
During the project Ethereum 2.0 has some leading names in blockchain development, including Vitalik Buterin, co-founder of Ethereum. There is not a single team responsible for developing and implementing Ethereum 2.0. Multiple teams or clients work on multiple Ethereum 2.0 iterations as a means of maintaining network security.
Polkadot was developed by a single company called Parity Technologies, a global team of engineers, cryptographers, solution architects and researchers. Together with Polkadot, Parity developed its customer Parity Ethereum and its customer Parity Zcash.
Parity Technologies was founded by Wood and Jutta Steiner. The credentials of Wood is well established through its history with Ethereum and as the creator of the programming language Solidity, With Steiner is also one of the original members of the Ethereum team. serving as their first security chief. She is applied math and is now the managing director of Parity.
Time is of the essence
One of the biggest challenges for Ethereum 2.0 is the time it takes to complete the project. There has been talk of a scalability update since around 2017, and it is expected to be in 2022 Until the implementation is complete, this is assumed There are no more delays. However, Ethereum has a decisive advantage over Polkadot and all other blockchain platforms: it has a long-standing developer base and community as well as more development activities compared to its competitors.
However, Delays in the implementation of Ethereum 2.0 have allowed other projects, of which Polkadot is obviously a major competitor, to develop their own platforms that offer additional attributes such as interoperability. Polkadot offers Ethereum compatibility, which means that lDevelopers could take over the platform without necessarily departing from its original basis.
It will be interesting to see how the two platforms work together when the implementation of Ethereum 2.0 is complete. If all goes well, each platform can complement the other’s strengths to create a connected blockchain network that is larger than the sum of its parts.